So what is going on
in a dog's coat?...
Most dogs will suffer from a flea infestation at some point in their
lives. It used to be that they were most at risk during the warmer
months; however, with modern day central heating we now provide a
lovely warm environment for fleas all year round. For this reason,
treatment against fleas should be provided throughout the year.
The number of fleas would normally decrease during the cold winter
months. However, as most houses are now centrally heated, the fleas
are provided with an ideal environment in which to survive and breed
The length of the flea life-cycle depends on temperature and
humidity. In an ideal environment the cycle can be around 21 days.
far the most common flea in both dogs and cats is the cat flea (Ctenocephalides
Some dogs will develop a hypersensitivity to flea saliva and this
can lead to an itchy reaction. One or two fleas would be quite
enough to cause a marked irritation. Most flea reactions in dogs are
seen on the lower back area, above the tail.
Fleas spend the majority of their life-cycle in the home
environment. Only adult fleas are seen on the dog. The female flea
lays the eggs on the dog's coat, these fall off and can be found
wherever your dog spends most of his time - in his bedding, in the
carpet, on the sofa, or even on your bed!
Adult fleas do not live for long on your dog and die after 7-14 days
- only to be replaced by the ones developing in the environment.
The flea lives by ingesting blood from your dog several times a day.
More often than not an owner will notice small specks of grit on the
dog's coat. To establish whether this is flea dirt, brush the coat
and allow the material to fall onto a moist white tissue. Flea dirt
will produce a red mark.
Dogs can also pick up fleas from outside the home or from other
Fleas are also the intermediate host of the tapeworm. Therefore it
is important to remember when treating your dog for fleas, to treat
him for tapeworms too.
Effective flea treatment and control involves treating both the
environment and the dog (for all the reasons stated above).
Flea preparations come in all forms - aerosols, powders, pump action
sprays, insecticidal collars, spot-ons, oral tablets or shampoos.
There are a large number of flea products available. Ask your vet
for advice on which products will suit you and your dog's needs.
Treatment of the environment involves using a recommended aerosol
spray and regular vacuuming - don't forget under the skirting
boards, under the sofa cushions and the dog's bedding.
are usually picked up by your dog in long grass or in woodland. They
often attach to the dog's head and look like warts. They grow in
size as they feed on your dog's blood, and although if left alone
will eventually fall off when full prompt removal is necessary as
they can pass on disease to your dog as they feed.
If you do not know how to remove ticks safely (just pulling may
leave parts of the head behind and cause a nasty infection) then ask
your vet to show you.
Certain spot-on preparations that you can use for flea prevention
will also kill ticks, so ask your vet for advice on this.
what's hiding in that matted hair?...
often you find dogs in dog shelters with matted hair. Usually, if it
is a good shelter, these dogs would be new arrivals, if not the
shelter is probably short on manpower.
find dogs with matted hair in homes as well. (Unfortunately not all
dog owners are conscientious about their pets.)
with such problems are usually ones with long-haired coats.
Sometimes, you'll find dogs with short-haired coats also have
problem needs to be taken care of. While this condition is harmful
to the dog, it is also unhealthy for the humans and other dogs who
live in the vicinity.
is it harmful to the dog? Matted hair is a great hiding place for
fleas, mites and ticks. Dandruff (yes, even dogs are affected by
dandruff), has a chance to thrive in the matted coat. Last of all -
but perhaps most obviously! - the odour accompanying matted coat is
don't have to be a rocket scientist to work out that a dog with a
matted coat is not comfortable and certainly not happy. How do you
deal with such a problem? Read on...
First things first. Assess the extent of matting. Is it all over the
coat? Is it dirt streaked? Is it only at the ends of the hair? Has
the matting extended to the roots?
If the matting is all over the coat, dirt streaked and has extended
to the roots, the best way to get rid of the problem is to cut away
all of the dog's coat. You have to take care while sniping away the
hair that you don't hurt the dog's skin. The dog will look odd with
its hair shorn off, but it is better off without the matted hair.
done that it's time to groom the dog, treat it for ticks, mites,
fleas and dandruff (more often than not such dogs will have all
these infestations). Take care that the dog is regularly groomed, so
that the condition does not recur.
If the matting is restricted to the ends of the hair, measures are
not as drastic as the previous one. However, it is going to be a
tedious job. Get the dog to lie on a table. (Keep some tidbits to
tempt the dog to stay there. Of course if you have a way with dogs,
you don't need the tidbits.)
need a pair of small scissors as well as a good-sized one. The small
scissors are for difficult places like the paws, the ears and eyes.
Carefully snip off the matted parts.
you have done the delicate areas, use the other larger scissors to
snip off the rest of the matted hair. Next, thoroughly brush the dog
down to remove small tangles. Once again check the dog for
infestations and treat those conditions as well.
What happens with dogs with short hair but a badly matted coat? More
often than not the matting is due to dirt. So, very simply bathe the
dog, groom it and you are rid of the problem. Once again check for
infestations and treat the dog for them.
is only one way you can avoid this problem from recurring.
grooming for your dog does not only have aesthetic purposes but also
adds to your pet's holistic growth - physical and psychological.
Since dog hair can interlace due to dirt and grime in the coat
forming mats and tangles, they would need to be groomed to keep
proper hygiene. Plus grooming generates more bonding time with your
pet, creating a stronger relationship.
is best to train your dog to be groomed at an early age. But an
untrained dog can still be taught to accept all the attention. Train
your pet to get used to his body parts being handled and brushed.
You need not go to a professional groomer, but if you don't have the
time or the interest to groom your dog, be sure to select a groomer
that handles the animals gently.
to remember in grooming your dog
a daily examination of your pet's body parts. Look out for bumps,
hot spots, inflammation, irritation, vegetative matter, and
parasites like fleas and ticks in his coat.
rid of fleas by using a fine-toothed comb; ticks can be tweezed off.
should be checked - droop ears are inclined to infection which can
lead to permanent hearing loss.
your dog's pads - dirt, grime, pebbles, chemicals can get caught
that can infect his paws.
not only removes matted hair, it also takes away dead hair, thus
eliminating animal odour. Tangles can also be very painful for your
dog that may lead to skin inflammation. Grooming during shedding
encourages growth of new coat, so brush especially after physical
should be trimmed every month, especially if your dog has a hard
hygiene is maintained by using dog toothpaste and toothbrush with
soft bristles twice a week.
damp cotton cloth is used to remove mucus from your dog's eyes and a
coarse rag is appropriate in cleaning your pet's face.
bathing your pet, make sure that you brush away dead hairs first to
clear all the mats in his coat. Soak your pet in warm water. Apply a
pet shampoo in small amounts. Target areas are the eyes, ears,
rectum, toes and under the chin. Avoid getting soapy water in his
eyes and ears. You also have an option to apply coat conditioner
breeds require varying bath frequency; consult the local pet
grooming shop or your vet if you're not sure how many times you
should bathe your dog.
is recommended that a dog owner has her/his own home-grooming kit. A
good kit includes a grooming brush, clippers for dog toenails, combs
with varying teeth (fine, medium, coarse), dog shampoo, coat
conditioner, and a coarse rag.
you knew all that already, didn't you!